This is a criterion-referenced assessment; no normative data is provided. This assessment is given to students across the state of Virginia every year, and because of this, item and subtest analyses can be conducted every year on many thousands of kindergarten students (over 500,000 students at the time of this writing). Reliability and validity measures have been regularly gathered since 1997, and are well within expected ranges. Predictive validity measures have been conducted using the Stanford-9 (required of students in Virginia) as well as subsequent measures gathered using the PALS 1-3.
A CD-ROM with test-administration training is provided with this assessment.
WEB SITE: http://pals.virginia.edu