SUBTESTS AND SKILLS ASSESSED: Basic Concepts — In this literacy assessment the student must point to a picture that is most similar to a verbal description (e.g. “Point to the big tree”).
Receptive Vocabulary — Student must point to a picture that best represents a dictated word. Words increase in difficulty.
Parallel Sentence Production — The teacher describes a picture using certain grammar, then the student describes a similar picture using the same grammatical structure the teacher did. This is a test of syntax and morphemic knowledge.
Word Relationships — Student must describe why pairs of words are related (e.g. SUN and HOT).
Rhyme Knowledge — Student must determine whether two words rhyme, decide which word out of a set of words does not rhyme, produce a rhyming word when given a prompt, and complete a sentence with an appropriate rhyming word.
Sound Categorization — Student must decide which word out of a set of words does not begin with the same sound (phoneme) as the other words.
Elision — Student must omit part of a compound word (e.g. teacher says “cowboy,” and student replies with “cow.”
Letter Knowledge — Student must correctly identify letters (by name, by pointing to them, and by writing them).
Phonics Knowledge — Student must identify the sounds (phonemes) that typically correspond to letters and letter clusters. Student must also correctly pronounce simple nonsense-words.
Invented Spelling — Student must write dictated words using appropriate spelling-sound conventions.
Book Handling — Student demonstrates just the most basic knowledge of concepts about print (e.g. parts of a book, direction of reading)
Concept of Word — Student demonstrates more advanced concepts about word boundaries and identifies (without decoding) specific words.
Matching Symbols — Student must match identical pairs of letters or numbers as well as clusters of letters.
Sight Word Recognition — Student must correctly identify words in a graded list.
Rapid Automatic Naming — Student must quickly identify pictures of familiar objects.
Word Retrieval — Student is given a category, and must think of as many words as possible that fit that category in one minute (e.g. “Name all of the food items you can think of.”).
Listening Comprehension — Student must retell important details from a story, and also answer comprehension questions about the story.
This collection of assessments is a mix of norm-referenced and criterion-referenced subtests. Where appropriate, raw scores can be converted into percentile ranks. Data from certain subtest can be combined to provide overall index scores. This assessment was standardized using a nationwide, representative sample of PreK – 1 students. Reliability coefficients were within expected ranges for students of this age range. Validity was determined using subtest intercorrelations, as well as correlations with other existing assessments (e.g. CELF Preschool-2, PIPA, ERDA-2, etc.). The different subtests in the ALL are broken down into different levels of investigation. There are indicator assessments (used as a screen for all children), diagnostic assessments (for students who did not perform well on the indicator assessment), and criterion-referenced assessments (for further investigation into the cause of the difficulties).
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